Origen in the 2nd century refers to the uncertainty about the Book of Wisdom.  Meliton of Sardis in the 2nd century AD, Augustine (c. 397 AD) and Pope Innocent I (405 AD) considered Solomon`s wisdom part of the Old Testament. Athanasius writes that the Book of Wisdom, as well as three other deuterocanonical books, although not part of the canon, “were intended by the fathers to read.”  Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 385 AD) mentions that Solomon`s wisdom was of disputed canonicity.  According to the monk Rufinus of Aquileia (circa 400 AD), the Book of Wisdom was classified as “ecclesiastical” rather than “canonical.”  Ultimately, God confronts Job with a series of rhetorical questions about the wonders of creation: stars and constellations, land and oceans, seasons and weather, birds and animals. The message is clear: God`s wisdom and power, reflected in His created order, transcend human understanding. Neither Job nor the reader is informed of why God allows suffering, but they are called to trust Him. As Tim Keller notes, “If you have a God who is great and transcendent enough to be angry because He hasn`t stopped evil and suffering in the world, then (at the same time) you have a God who is great and transcendent enough to have good reasons to let Him continue that you can`t know.” Earlier this year, we began a tour of the different passages of the Bible, starting with the books of Moses. Today we continue our visit with the next section of the Bible: the books of wisdom. However, there are also marked contrasts between the wisdom literature of the Bible and the rest of the Old Testament.
These books speak in a much more indirect style than the historical accounts of the OT before them and the prophetic oracles that follow. They share many literary characteristics with the wisdom literature of the surrounding ANE cultures – dialogues, personal reflections and collected proverbs, most of them expressed in poems or songs. In terms of content, they make observations about the created order and how to live well, and they reflect on the problem of suffering and the meaning of life. But in all of this, they draw attention to God`s wisdom and power. It`s not the sunniest book, that`s for sure. And yet, there are flashes of light in the existential darkness. For everything, there is a season and a time for everything under the sky. Enjoy simple things, food and drink, family and work, as good gifts from God. And remember, God is in heaven and you are not. The bottom line: fear God and keep His commandments, for this is the duty of mankind. The books of wisdom contain some of the most beautifully written passages in the entire Bible, although it can be difficult to read directly, just as one might approach the clear accounts of the historical books of the Bible. While many books of the Old Testament give us a historian`s perspective on God`s people and their experiences, the books of wisdom give us a more pastoral insight into the state of their hearts.
We see that despite the time lag that separates us from ancient Israel, the Israelites struggled with the same questions of faith as today: they asked difficult questions about sin and suffering; they felt joy and trust in God`s love; they sought God in the joys and trials of life; they sometimes had doubts and turned to God for physical and spiritual help. The Book of Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is a Jewish work in Greek, probably written in Alexandria, Egypt. Generally dated to the middle of the first century BC. 1], the central theme of the work is “Wisdom” itself, which appears in two main aspects. The first aspect is that wisdom in one`s relationship with man is the perfection of knowing the righteous as a gift from God that manifests itself in action. The second aspect is that, in the direct relationship with God, wisdom has been with God since eternity.  It is one of the seven books of wisdom of the Septuagint, the others are the Psalms, Proverbs, Preachers, the Song of Solomon, Job and Sirachus. It is included in the canons of the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. Most Protestants consider it to be part of the apocrypha. Solomon`s wisdom can be associated with various forms of ancient literature, both Jewish and non-Jewish, but it clearly belongs to books of biblical wisdom such as the Book of Job, one of five such books in ancient Jewish literature.
 As for the classical genre, it has been identified as an encomium and with the Greek genre of the “exhortation discourse”, with which a teacher tries to persuade others to adopt a certain course of action.  The five books of wisdom form an eclectic anthology that lies at the positional and emotional heart of the Old Testament. The collection covers the broadest spectrum of human emotions, from the timeless consolation of “The Lord is my shepherd” to the existential despair of “Foolish! Meaningless! Not everything makes sense! Along the way, these books deal with the biggest questions people have always faced. But they don`t do it in the direct propositional way modern readers are most comfortable with. Although these books are part of Scripture, they are also part of the broader wisdom tradition that was popular throughout the ancient Middle East. They use literary conventions and cultural ideas that are often alien to contemporary audiences. Their allusive style and lyrical poetic structure invite the reader to think carefully, to weigh and chew and to reflect on these words of the sages. It is a genre – or rather a collection of subgenres – designed to appeal to the heart and imagination as well as the mind. Believers seeking guidance on daily issues and decisions will find answers in the wisdom books of the Bible. Sometimes referred to as “wisdom literature,” these five books deal closely with our human struggles and real-life experiences. In this genre, the emphasis is on teaching individual readers what is necessary to attain moral excellence and gain God`s favor.
Moreover, the books of wisdom show us that God appreciates and answers these countless questions and prayers. We can console ourselves with the fact that no experience in our lives, whether wonderful or terrible, can place us outside of the love and understanding of a merciful God. This is not the kind of material that lends itself easily to sermons and Bible studies. Instead, it forces the reader to grapple with the cumulative effect of dialogue, to get into the frustration of the characters, and to experience the futility of human wisdom to answer life`s big questions. Unlike the wisdom literature of the NSA, the books of biblical wisdom are ultimately not based on human wisdom or observation. Instead, they are based on God`s wisdom. Behind all the confusion and uncertainties of life, these scriptures recognize the hand of a sovereign Creator who is all wise and omnipotent, a god not of chaos but of order. With the prayer and enlightenment of the Holy Spirit, these books can convey their ancient wisdom to modern readers, answer their timeless questions, and fulfill their heart`s desires in ways they least expect. Not surprisingly, this is very similar to how God likes to work—the God who inspired these scriptures in the first place. The books of wisdom (which are five in the Protestant canon, seven, if we include the apocryphal books) represent a great change in style from the historical books that preceded them. They fall into the category of ancient Near Eastern wisdom literature, a genre of writing that focuses on existential questions about God, humanity, creation, and the nature of evil and suffering.